Write a scholarly paper in which you apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to a communicable disease. Choose one communicable disease.
Epidemiology Paper Requirements
Include the following in your assignment:
A minimum of three references is required. The written essay should be at least 1250 words in length.
APA format is required.
For this assignment, I have chosen to apply the concepts of epidemiology and nursing research to the communicable disease of tuberculosis (TB). TB remains a major global health threat, with an estimated 10 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths worldwide in 2019. This paper will provide a thorough description of the disease, including causes, mode of transmission, symptoms, treatment, and complications. It will also discuss the demographic most affected by TB, including incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. Additionally, the determinants of health affecting TB will be explored, as well as the epidemiologic triad of host, agent, and environmental factors as related to this disease. Finally, the role of the public health nurse in relation to TB will be discussed, including their involvement in finding, reporting, and collecting and analyzing data, as well as their role in follow-up care.
A thorough description of the disease including causes, mode of transmission, symptoms, treatment and complications. Discuss the demographic most affected-incidence, prevalence, morbidity, and mortality.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacteria primarily attack the lungs, but can also target other parts of the body. TB is spread through the air when a person with active TB disease coughs, sneezes, or talks. People infected with TB may not show symptoms for weeks, months, or even years, but can still transmit the disease to others. Symptoms of active TB disease include persistent cough, fatigue, weight loss, fever, and night sweats. TB can be treated with a combination of antibiotics, but the full course of treatment can take six months or longer. Complications of TB include drug-resistant infections, infection of other organs, and the development of active TB disease in people with weakened immune systems.
Globally, TB affects people of all ages and socioeconomic backgrounds, but certain populations are at higher risk than others. In 2019, about 90% of TB cases occurred in low- and middle-income countries, with India, China, and Indonesia accounting for the highest number of cases. TB is also more common in people living with HIV, people who smoke, and people who work or live in environments with poor ventilation. In the United States, TB incidence rates have been declining for decades, but racial and ethnic minorities, foreign-born individuals, and people experiencing homelessness are still disproportionately affected.
What are the determinants of health affecting this disease?
TB is influenced by several determinants of health, including social and economic factors, environmental factors, and individual behaviors and characteristics. Poverty and inequality are major drivers of the TB epidemic, as people living in impoverished conditions are at higher risk of TB infection and are more likely to develop active TB disease. Other social determinants of health that can impact TB include poor nutrition, inadequate housing, and lack of access to healthcare services. Environmental determinants of health, such as air pollution, can also contribute to the spread of TB.
Individual behaviors and characteristics can also affect TB risk. People who smoke or use drugs are more likely to develop active TB disease, and individuals with weakened immune systems are more vulnerable to TB infection. Age is another factor, as younger children and older adults are at higher risk of severe TB disease.
Identify the epidemiologic triad including host, agent and environmental factors as related to this disease.
The epidemiologic triad is a model used to understand the dynamic interplay between host, agent, and environmental factors in the spread and control of infectious diseases. For TB, the host is the human host, who can become infected and develop active TB disease if exposed to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium. Factors that can make someone more vulnerable to TB include underlying medical conditions, weakened immune systems, and exposure to TB-infected individuals. The agent in TB is the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium, which can survive and thrive in the human body and can be transmitted through the air. Environmental factors that can contribute to the spread of TB include poor ventilation, crowded living conditions, and exposure to air pollution.
Discuss the role of the public health nurse in relation to this disease. How is the public health nurse involved in finding, reporting, collection and analysis of data and follow up?
Public health nurses play a critical role in the prevention and control of TB. They are involved in finding and identifying people who are infected with TB, as well as ensuring that they receive appropriate treatment and care. Specifically, public health nurses may be involved in contact tracing, which involves identifying and testing people who have been in close contact with someone with active TB disease. Public health nurses also work to educate communities about TB prevention and control, including strategies for reducing TB transmission and increasing uptake of TB testing and treatment.
In addition, public health nurses collect and analyze data on TB incidence and prevalence, morbidity, and mortality. This data helps to inform ongoing efforts to control and prevent TB at the local, national, and global levels. Public health nurses may also be involved in research related to TB, including clinical trials of new TB treatments and vaccines.
Finally, public health nurses are involved in follow-up care for people with TB. This may involve monitoring treatment adherence, providing support to patients and their families, and coordinating care with other healthcare providers. Public health nurses may also be involved in addressing comorbidities that can complicate TB care, such as HIV and diabetes.
In conclusion, TB is a significant global health threat that requires ongoing efforts to control and prevent its spread. This paper has explored the epidemiology of TB, including its causes, mode of transmission, symptoms, treatment, and complications. The determinants of health affecting TB were also discussed, along with the epidemiologic triad of host, agent, and environmental factors. Finally, the critical role of the public health nurse in TB prevention and control, including finding, reporting, collection and analysis of data, and follow-up care, was explored. By understanding the epidemiology of TB and the role of public health nurses, we can work toward a future where TB is eradicated as a public health threat.
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