Harvard Referencing

The HARVARD system cites the author’s surname and year of publication in the text, e.g. (Bond, 2004), and provides a reference list (of these citations), in alphabetical order by author, at the end of the assignment. It is here additional bibliographical details are noted, such as the title and publisher.

The first part of this guide looks at Harvard referencing within the text of your report, essay or assignment. The second part looks at compiling the Reference list or Bibliography from examples, such as books and journal articles. The third part lists examples of other types of documents, such as Government reports and Law Cases.

Reference to sources may be cited in the text in different ways depending on the nature of the sentence/paragraph that you are writing.

When you are making reference to an author and his work in the text of your essay, report or other assignment, and you directly mention the author, this is followed by the date of the work in brackets (parentheses), and forms part of the sentence. If you make reference to a work or piece of research without mentioning the author in the text of your essay, then both the author’s name and year are usually placed at the end of the sentence in brackets.

Where the author’s name is cited in your essay

and is part of the sentence, put the author’s name, followed by the year of publication, in brackets.

Cormack (1994) states that ‘when writing for a professional readership,
writers invariably make reference to already published works’.

In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good
practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has
been supported in the work of Cormack (1994).

Where the author’s name is not cited directly in the essay,
both the author’s name and year are usually placed at the end of the sentence, in brackets.

Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing
for a professional audience (Cormack 1994).

Where more than one author’s work is cited in your essay
Where reference is made to more than one author in a sentence, and they are referred to directly, these can be listed,

Jones (1946) and Smith (1948) have both shown……

Where more than one authors’ works are not cited directly in your essay
they can be listed at the end of the sentence, putting the author’s name, followed by the date of publication, separated by semi-colons and within brackets.

(Jones 1946; Smith 1948)

Where there are two authors for a particular work
When there are two authors for a work, these should all be noted in your text.

White and Brown (1964) in their recent research paper found……..

with regard to PREP and the role of libraries, Crane and Urquhart (1994) suggest…

Or indirectly

(Slater and Jones 1996)

(White and Brown 1966)

Where there are more than two authors for a work
Where there are several authors (more than two), only the first author should be used, followed by “and others” or “et al”.

Green et al. (1995) found that the majority ……………

Or indirectly

Recent research has found that the majority of……(Green et al. 1995)

Where there is no author
Use the title of the work and date of publication, (or you may use Anonymous or Anon). The title should be written in italics. Every effort should be made to establish the authorship, if you intend to use this work in an academic submission.

Marketing strategy (1999)

Where there is no date
The abbreviation n.d. is used to denote this

Smith (n.d.) has written and demonstrated…………..

Or indirectly

(Smith n.d.)

Page numbers
Including page numbers, from where a reference is made, (particularly for quotations), will help the reader trace your sources.

Lawrence (1966, p.124)

Or indirectly

(Lawrence 1966, p.124)

Note page numbers from books are a single p, from journals pp

 

Where there are several works by one author
If you are referring to more than one publication from the same author to illustrate the same point
where the works are published in different years, the reference may be cited with the earliest publication year first,

as suggested by Bloggs (1992, 1994).

Or indirectly

(Bloggs 1992, 1994) …

 

If the same author is responsible for several works written over one year which you are quoting from, these can be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the year for each item.

Earlier research by Smith (1993a) found that …but later research suggested again by Smith (1993b) that…….

If several works published in the same year are referred to on a single occasion –
or an author has made the same point in several publications, they can all be
referred to by using lower case letters (as above),

Bloggs (1993a, b) has stated on more than one occasion that…

Quotations

Where you are quoting portions of published text

If you want to include a statement from a published work in your essay,
the sentence(s) must be included within quotation marks, and may be
introduced to by such phrases as

…the author states that…or …the author writes that … .

In order for a reader to trace the quoted section, it is good practice to give the number of the page where the quotation was found.
Additionally, highlight the quotation (especially if it runs to several lines) by placing it as an indented paragraph within your work and enclosing the quotation within speech marks. This clearly identifies the quotation as the work of someone else and not your own.

On the topic of professional writing and referencing, Cormac (1994, p. 32-33)
states:

‘When writing for a professional readership, writers invariably
make reference to already published works’.

Edited works

Where you are referring to the work of an author that appears as a chapter or part of a larger work edited by someone else

Within the text of your essay, the reference should be cited using the name of the author of the part or chapter of text to which you are referring, and not the editor of the whole volume.

In his work on health information, Smith (1975) states…

In the reference list details of both the part and the entire document should be given
This is given in the reference list as,

Smith, J., (1975). A source of information. In W. Jones, ed. One hundred and…

Corporate authors

Where you are referring to a publication by an association, company or a government department etc.

If the work is by a recognised organisation and has no personal author, then the author of the work is usually cited under the body that commissioned the work eg.

Department of the Environment

or

Royal College of Nursing

It is acceptable to use standard abbreviations for these bodies, i.e. DoE or RCN in your essay text, provided the full name is given once at the first citing within the text, with the abbreviation in brackets. The full name is the preferred format in the reference list.

Some reports are written by groups or committees. Such reports can be
cited by the name of the committee

Committee on Nursing (1972).

Second-hand references (secondary sources)

Where an author mentions another’s work, and you wish to refer to this other work, this is a secondary reference.

These should only be cited if you are unable to read the original work being referred to:

Indirectly

(Brown 1966 cited in Bassett 1986)

Directly

Research recently carried out by Brown (1966 cited in Bassett 1986) found that

White, as cited by Black (1994), suggests that…

In this citation, White is the primary source, and therefore the original; Black (the secondary) may have taken White’s ideas forward and altered the meaning slightly, if not directly quoted. Therefore it would be prudent to try and access White’s work and read the original.

When citing the reference in the reference list, cite only the work that you have read; i.e. for this the secondary source, Black (1994).

For Tables and Diagrams

Where you are reproducing data from a diagram or table, or copying the entire table or diagram, in your essay, a reference should be made to the source.

A reference within the text of your essay to a Table taken from a book should include the author and page (Smith 2005, p.33) to enable the reader to verify the data. Where the source of the data is not the author’s own, but obtained from another source, this is a second hand reference and needs to be cited thus (United Nations 1975 cited in Smith 2005, p.33)

Where the table is reproduced in its entirety, place the citation as a footnote to the table. Be particularly careful to note the original source of data, as well as the authorship of document you have found it in.

Fuller details should be included in the reference list at the end of the essay.

An example,
you wish to
1. quote from a table in this book in your text,
2. reproduce the table in your essay
3. reference the book in the bibliography

Picture of Book
Television ownership in England (Percentage of households)

Date 1970 1980
Percentage 60 70

Source : National Statistics Office 1985

This book is :- Amazon, Robert. , 2005. Management in the media: decision makers. 4th ed.
Harlow, England: FT Prentice Hall.
The table is found on page 267.

1
… ..historical figures demonstrate that only sixty percent of households had televisions in Britain by the 1970s. (National Statistics Office 1985 cited in Amazon 2005, p. 267).

2
… ..Footnote positioned below the reproduced table………..
(National Statistics Office 1985 cited in Amazon 2005 , p.267).

3
Amazon, R., 2005. Management in the media: decision makers. 4th ed.
Harlow, England: FT Prentice Hall.

Compiling the Reference List and Bibliography

For books
Author(s) surname(s) and initials
Year of publication of edition referred to (not printing or impression)
Full title of book/thesis/dissertation (including subtitle) in italics
Edition of book (if not first edition)
Place of publication
Name of publisher

Ulrich, W., 1983. Critical Heuristics of Social Planning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kirk, J. and Munday, R.J., 1988. Narrative Analysis. 3rd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

 

For books with multiple authors
For books with two or three authors, of equal status, their names should be included in the author statement

The Authors surname and initials, listed in the order they appear in the document.
Year of publication of edition referred to (not printing or impression)
Full title of book/thesis/dissertation (including subtitle) in italics
Edition of book (if not first edition)
Place of publication
Name of publisher

For books with more than three authors

British Standard recommends for books with four or more authors, the name of the first author should always be included, with or without the names of the other authors. Where names are omitted “and others” or “et al” should be added.

However, within some subject disciplines, there is a convention to include all authors in the Reference List/Bibliography.

The first Author only surname and initials, followed by “and others” or “et al”, if other authors are omitted
Year of publication of edition referred to (not printing or impression)
Full title of book/thesis/dissertation (including subtitle) in italics
Edition of book (if not first edition)
Place of publication
Name of publisher

Grace, B. et al., 1988. A History of the World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

 

For books which are edited
Author(s) surname(s) and initials, followed by ed. or eds.
Year of publication of edition referred to (not printing or impression)
Full title of book/thesis/dissertation (including subtitle) in italics
Edition of book (if not first edition)
Place of publication
Name of publisher

Keene, E. ed., 1988. Natural language. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.

Silverman, D.F. and Propp, K.K. eds., 1990. The Active Interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

 

For an e-book
Author(s) surname(s) and initials
Year of publication of edition referred to (not printing or impression)
Full title of book/thesis/dissertation (including subtitle) in italics
Type of medium should be indicated in parentheses or square brackets, ie. [e-book]
Edition of book (if not first edition)
Place of publication
Name of publisher
Available from, should include Web site address/URL and additional details of access, such as
the routing from the home page of the source
Accessed, or cited ….date in square brackets

Fishman, Robert., 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book]. Chester: Castle Press.
Available from : libweb.anglia.ac.uk / E-books
[cited 5 June 2005].

Employment law and practice. 2005. [CD-ROM]. London: Gee
Available from : libweb.anglia.ac.uk/ E-books
[cited 7 June 2005].

 

For chapters of edited books
Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initials
Year of publication (of chapter)
Title of chapter
Place the word ‘In’
Editor(s) first name/ initials and surname(s) of the book, placing ed. or
eds. after the last name
Title of the book (including subtitle) in italics
Edition of the book (if not the first)
Place of publication
Name of publisher
Year of publication (of book)
Page numbers if relevant, first page and last page e.g. pp. 3-8

Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In W. Jones, ed. One hundred
and one ways to find information about health
. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998.

Samson,C., 1970. Problems of information studies in history. In S. Stone, ed. Humanities information research. Sheffield: CRUS, 1980, pp. 44-68.

Where you have several works by one author-written over one year, these can be differentiated by adding a lower case letter after the date, remember that this also must be consistent with any citing in your text. In your reference list or bibliography, you do not need to repeat the surname.

Soros, G., 1966a. The road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

—— 1966b. Beyond the road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

You can also do this where you have several authors with the same surname, or you can include their initials in the citation in the text of your assignment.
Works by the same author should be displayed in chronological order, earliest first.

For journal articles
Author(s) surname(s) and first name initials
Year of publication
Title of article
Name of journal, in italics
Volume number, in bold
Issue number in brackets (-)
Page numbers, first page and last page e.g. pp. 3-8

Note the page referencing is pp, unlike a citation within the text of your essay

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal, an indepth look.
Political Science Quarterly, 42 (6), pp.564-78.

 

For newspaper articles

Author(s) surname(s) and first name initials
Year of publication
Title of article
Name of newspaper, in italics
Date, day and month
Page numbers of article

Slapper, Gary., 2005. Corporate manslaughter, new issues for lawyers. The Times,
3 Sep. pp.4-5.

 

For journal articles, taken from an electronic source

Author(s) surname(s) and first name initials
Year of publication
Title of article
Name of journal in italics
Type of medium should be indicated in square brackets
Volume number in bold
Issue number in brackets (-)
Page numbers, only if these are part of the webpage presentation.
Available from, URL and other location and source details, which would help
to retrieve the article
Accessed, or cited date in square brackets

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal, an indepth look.
Political Science Quarterly, [online]. 42 (6),
Available from : http://www.pol.upenn/articles, Blackwell Science Synergy.
[cited 12 June 2005].

Hamill, C., 1999. Academic essay writing in the first person: a guide for undergraduates. Nursing Standard, [online] 21 Jul., 13 (44), pp 38-40.
Available from : http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk/ejournals/333
[cited 12 June 2005].

Jenkings, R.,1989. Clashing with caching. ARIADNE, [Online] Issue 21,
10 September,
Available at : http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue21/web-cache/
[cited 2 December 2004].

Wright, A. and Cottee, P., 2000.
Consumer understanding of US and EU nutrition labels.
British Food Journal [online] 103 (8), pp. 615-629. Emerald.
Available at : http://www.emerald-library.com
[cited 8 September 2001].

Beaver, M., 2000. Errant greenhouse could still be facing demolition.
Building Design [Online] 24 Nov., p3.
Available at : http://www.infotrac.london.galegroup.com/itweb/sbu_uk
[cited 15 August 2003].

 

For a journal abstract, found on a database

If you need to cite a reference/abstract from a bibliographic database,
where you have been unable to see the full-text version, but still wish to include in your reference list or bibliography

Author(s) surname(s) and first name initials
Year of publication
Title of article
Name of journal in italics
Type of medium should be indicated in square brackets
Volume number in bold
Issue number in brackets (-)
Page numbers, only if these are part of the webpage presentation.
Abstract from, with details of source
Available from, URL and other location and source details, which
would help to retrieve the article
Accessed, or cited date in square brackets

Boughton, J.M. 2002 The Bretton Woods proposal, an indepth look.
Political Science Quarterly, [online]. 42 (6), Abstract from Blackwell Science Synergy database
Available from : http://www.pol.upenn/articles, Blackwell Science Synergy.
[cited 12 June 2005].


Referencing from the Internet

The information needed for a complete and accurate reference should
normally include:

Author’s name(s) and initials (if more than two authors, use first
followed by et al.) or corporate author
Year of publication
Title of document being cited (with an edition or version number if later
than the first, if relevant) The title of a web page, normally the main heading on
the page.
Medium or type of resource, in square brackets [Internet] to show that
this is not a printed item.
Available from Location URL,
Together with any commands needed to locate the document, generally
from the home page, routing or breadcrumb.
Accessed or cited date in square brackets, especially important in this context as
a document is likely to change or move, you should also take a print of the front page.

e-version of an annual report document

Marks & Spencer ., 2004. Annual report 2003-2004. [online].
Available from :
http://www-marks-and-spencer.co.uk/corporate/annual2003/
[cited 4 June 2005].


online newspaper article

Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. and Smith, D., 2003. Focus: ‘Targetitis ails NHS.
Times Online, [internet].1 June
Available from :
http://www.timesonline.co.uk/print/11-1506-669.html
[cited 17 March 2005].


website information

National electronic Library for Health. 2003. Can walking make you slimmer and healthier? (Hitting the headlines article) [online]. (Updated 16 Jan 2005)
Available from : http://www.nhs.uk.hth.walking
[cited 10 April 2005].


publications available from website

Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. 2001. Hypertension in the elderly. (SIGN publication 20) [internet]. Edinburgh : SIGN (Published 2001)
Available from : http://www.sign.ac.uk/pdf/sign49.pdf
[cited 17 March 2005].

Boots Group Plc., 2003. Corporate Social Responsibility. [Online]. Boots Group Plc.
Available from :
http://www.Boots-Plc.Com/Information/Info.Asp?id=447
[cited 23 July 2005].

Defoe, D., 1999. The Fortunes And The Misfortunes Of The Famous Moll Flanders. [Online]. Champaign, Illinois: Project Gutenberg.
Available from:
http://Promo.Net/Cgi-Promo/Pg/T9.Cgi?Entry=370&Full=Yes
[cited 18 November 2005].

Tesco Plc., 2002. Annual Report And Financial Statements 2002 . [Online]. Tesco Plc.
Available from:
http://81.201.142.254/Presentresults/Results2001_02/ Prelims/Report/ f
[cited 18 November 2005].

 

For E-Mail correspondence/discussion lists
Particular care needs to be taken if you are quoting from these sources, as they may include personal e-mail addresses, and be from a restricted source. Permission should be sought before these sources are quoted.

Author (s) surname and first name initials or corporate name
(Email Address)
Year of publication
Title of message or subject from posting line, in italics
Type of medium should be indicated in square brackets [e-mail]
Recipient’s name
Type of message
Correspondence address (if personal, obtain permission before including such details)
Date sent
Available from URL (e.g. details of where message is archived)
Date accessed

Jones,J. JONES@JONES.COM, 2005. Mobile phone developments. [online]. Message to R G. Schmit (r.g.schmit@syy.ac.uk). Sent Monday 7 June 2005, 08:13.
Available from : http://gog.defer.com/2004_07_01_defer_archive.html
[cited on 7 July 2004].

 

Referencing other types of documents
There are other types of documents, which you may wish to cite in your reference list or bibliography. Although there is no official Harvard guide for these, set out below are some suggestions.

Acts of Parliament
The standard method of citing an Act of Parliament is by its short title, which includes the year followed by the chapter number in brackets.
Place of publication
Name of Publisher


Higher Education Act 2004.
(c.8), London : HMSO.

For Act prior to 1963, the regal year and parliamentary session are included.


Road Transport Lighting Act 1957
. (5&6 Eliz. 2, c.51), London : HMSO.

 

Statutory Instruments
References to Statutory Instruments should include the following:
Short title
The abbreviation ‘SI’
Year of publication
Number
Place of publication
Publishers name


Public Offers of Securities Regulations 1995
. SI 1995/1537, London: HMSO

Command Papers and other Official publications
Title
Cite the Command number as it appears on the document, the style for this has changed
Year
Place of Publication
Publisher


Royal Commission on Civil Liability and Compensation for Personal Injury,
1978 (Pearson Report) (Cmnd. 7054) London: HMSO

Select Committee on Nationalised Industries (1978-9) Consumers and the Nationalised Industries : prelegislative hearings (HC 334 of 1978-9) London: HMSO.

 

Law report
Follow normal legal practice with :-
Name of the parties involved in the law case
Year of reporting
Law reporting series
Volume and number
Page reference


R v White (John Henry)
[2005] EWCA Crim 689, 2005 WL 104528 .

Jones v Lipman [1962] 1 WLR 832

 

Annual report

Corporate author
Year of publication
Full title of Annual Report
Place of Publication
Name of Publisher

Marks and Spencer, 2004. The way forward, Annual Report 2003-2004. London : Marks and Spencer.

British Standard

Corporate author
Year of publication
Identifying letters and numbers
Full title of British Standard
Place of Publication
Name of publisher

British Standards Institution., 1990. BS 5555:1990 Recommendations for wiring identification. Milton Keynes: BSI.

DVD
Authorship
Year of publication
Full title of DVD
Type of medium should be indicated in square brackets
Place of Publication
Name of publisher
Other relevant publication details

Warner Brothers., 2005. Great films from the 80s: a selection of clips from Warner Brothers top films from the 1980s. [DVD]. New York : Warner Brothers.

Video
Authorship
Year of publication
Full title of DVD
Type of medium should be indicated in square brackets
Place of Publication
Name of publisher
Other relevant publication details

Child Growth Foundation., 2004. Health for all 3 the video Part 1.

. London: Child Growth Foundation.
(Narrated by D B M Hall)

 

Dissertation
Author
Year of publication
Title of dissertation
Level or Qualification
Name of University

Richmond, Julia., 2005. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain.
Ph. D. Anglia Ruskin University.

Further Points to Note

Layout
It should be remembered that the Harvard system lays down standards for the order and content of information in the reference, not the format or layout on the page. Many variations of layout are acceptable provided they are used consistently.

References may be read straight across the page, and for ease of reading the reference list or bibliography may be presented in three columns. ie.

Author           Year           Bibliographic information

The title of the book or journal should be in italics, emboldened or underlined.

Students are advised to keep a paper copy of the front page of any electronic items cited in any coursework.

General comments
The quality of a written piece of work is enhanced when the author has paid attention to the referencing detail. Not only does it enable the marker/examiner to identify the breadth and depth of the author’s understanding of the topic in hand, it also enables readers in general to access the information referred to.

Tips on getting started

Remember to record all the documents you read.
Note down:-
Who is responsible for the document, is it a personal author or organisation
When was the document published or for electronic documents, made available
Title -What is the title of the book
If it’s an article, note the article title and journal title.
If it’s a chapter, note the chapter title and book title.
If it’s a website, identify what part of the site you are looking at.
Locational information, publishers details for books, volume and pages for journals
Website address, if in doubt, use the home page address which is more stable, and give routing to the page you are viewing.
For electronic sources, note the date accessed and take a printed copy of the front page.

If you require any assistance with citing please ask in the library for further guidance.

 

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